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计算以太坊中 发送交易/调用合约方法 需要消耗多少gas

发布时间:2017-08-11编辑:adwind查看次数:

    准备工作

    1、三个账户,eth.account[0]为默认账户,挖矿所得的奖励都会进入到这个账户

    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[0])
    736031150000000000000
    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1])
    500050000000000000
    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[2])
    500050000000000000

    普通交易所需的gas

    > eth.estimateGas({from:eth.accounts[1], to: eth.accounts[2], value:50000000000000})
    21001
    > eth.gasPrice
    20000000000

    如上,显示这笔account[1] => account[2] 的交易需要21001 gas, 当前的gasPrice为 20000000000,下面来验证一下
    给账户1解锁,发送这笔交易,并开启挖矿打包

    > eth.sendTransaction({from:eth.accounts[1], to: eth.accounts[2], value:50000000000000})
    I0318 00:24:21.360815 internal/ethapi/api.go:1143] Tx(0x33b58084a35e99245b9c931204a0d161b9d00f9fae5ffb307aff29f200e5cd30) to: 0x49fbd70ca9f90972806c375a111d08950d203f96
    "0x33b58084a35e99245b9c931204a0d161b9d00f9fae5ffb307aff29f200e5cd30"

    待交易被打包后

    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1])
    499580000000000000
    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[2])
    500100000000000000

    由 cost = gas * gasPrice , ( 账户1减少的资产 - 账户2增加的资产)/ gasPrice = 消耗的gas,即以下公式应该是成立的

    (500050000000000000 - 499580000000000000) - (500100000000000000 - 500050000000000000) = 21001 * 20000000000

    然而 细心的同学应该会发现,这个公式并不能成功,21001 这个数字怎么看怎么别扭,如果减1 这个公式就成功了!!!继续
    查看这笔交易的明细

    > eth.getTransactionReceipt("0x33b58084a35e99245b9c931204a0d161b9d00f9fae5ffb307aff29f200e5cd30")
    {
      blockHash: "0x8e411163367bc42a70ecc230d05dd2038afe0dccfab29c8a718a57bdbea0b2fa",
      blockNumber: 134,
      contractAddress: null,
      cumulativeGasUsed: 21000,
      from: "0x27c649b7c4f66cfaedb99d6b38527db4deda6f41",
      gasUsed: 21000,
      logs: [],
      logsBloom: "0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
      root: "0x2008f134f3328e48d4d05919666a5924767b00b286cf1ff27b7956654d5b6482",
      to: "0x49fbd70ca9f90972806c375a111d08950d203f96",
      transactionHash: "0x33b58084a35e99245b9c931204a0d161b9d00f9fae5ffb307aff29f200e5cd30",
      transactionIndex: 0
    }

    gasUsed: 21000 这就对上了,那么为什么eth.estimateGas() 计算的结果要多1 呢?这是有原因滴,如果计算出来的值和gasUsed相等,那这笔交易有可能是失败的,但是如果 gasUsed 小于计算出来的值,那么可以判断这笔交易成功了

    调用合约方法所需要的gas

    普通的转账交易所需要的gas是固定的21000,但是调用合约方法所需要的gas并不一定,总结来说占用的资源(计算量、内存等)越多,那么所需要的gas也就越多。先准备一个最简单的合约

     pragma solidity ^0.4.8;
    contract Test {
        uint public num;
        function setNum(uint newNum) {
            num = newNum;
        }
    }

    部署到私有链,这个过程就不再演示,最后合约实例testInstance。再看看eth.accounts[1] 和 eth.accounts[2] 的资产信息,方面后面计算

    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[1])
    499580000000000000
    > eth.getBalance(eth.accounts[2])
    500100000000000000

    计算调用合约方法setNum() 所需要的gas

    > testInstance.setNum.estimateGas(4, {from: eth.accounts[1]})
    41645

    开始调用

    > testInstance.setNum.sendTransaction(4, {from: eth.accounts[1]})
    I0318 07:21:31.344279 internal/ethapi/api.go:1143] Tx(0x3fad05f17f7904e08dcb9257ad28f85f29bd54c4729784fa39a9df88e3fcffab) to: 0x03a4fb357f8c38694ab536d09003076033442f9e
    "0x3fad05f17f7904e08dcb9257ad28f85f29bd54c4729784fa39a9df88e3fcffab"

    开启挖矿,让这笔交易被打包之后,再来查看下gasUsed 跟上面计算出来的数字是否吻合

    > eth.getTransactionReceipt('0x3fad05f17f7904e08dcb9257ad28f85f29bd54c4729784fa39a9df88e3fcffab')
    {
      blockHash: "0x494f5f6fc0c156f105ffe3e4e1aa886c60f916a5998d44a03916b3f2cc733b8a",
      blockNumber: 139,
      contractAddress: null,
      cumulativeGasUsed: 41644,
      from: "0x27c649b7c4f66cfaedb99d6b38527db4deda6f41",
      gasUsed: 41644,
      logs: [],
      logsBloom: "0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000",
      root: "0x857063e074cc3195ee2f3962438f3f6c31a759cfae461448e8726a5fa069d1ae",
      to: "0x03a4fb357f8c38694ab536d09003076033442f9e",
      transactionHash: "0x3fad05f17f7904e08dcb9257ad28f85f29bd54c4729784fa39a9df88e3fcffab",
      transactionIndex: 0
    }

    可以看到gasUsed:41644 比计算出来的少1,原因上面已经讲过了,这里不再赘述!


关键字词:以太坊、gas、区块链、智能合约调用